Monday, 19 June 2017

Application of copper and silver nano-particles for enhancing callus induction and regeneration of wheat

Wheat being a major crop of the world covers about 17 percent of the total world cultivated land and plays a vital role in world food supply but the low yield of wheat creates a gap between demand and supply. To meet and full fill the demands of rapidly increasing human population wheat yield must be significantly increase up to 40 percent by 2030. Use of modern techniques for example In vitro tissue culture technology that involves callus induction and regeneration phase, recombinant DNA technology, genetic transformation and nanotechnology can make possible to increase the wheat yield as well as quality. Tissue culture technique is very much important for genetic transformation and it offers the establishment of variation by gametoclonal and somaclonal variations and these variations can be used for crop and plants improvement and development programs.



Flourishing tissue culture for all plants mostly depends upon the elimination of endogenous as well as exogenous contaminating microbes which are major problems of tissue culture technology.

Therefore nanotechnology, a revolution of 20th century can be used to overcome these problems associated with tissue culture techniques. Nanotechnology is basically synthesis and application of nano-particles with size range of 1-100 nano-meters. Properties of metallic NPS (nano-particles) are totally dissimilar than bulk materials which are made from same atoms of same element. Nano-tech is most promising and valuable technology which could be applied in almost every part of life. The efficiency and use of nanotechnology totally depends on nano-particles types, size and their shapes. Several types and groups of nano-particles have different and specific uses in relevant fields for example metallic, magnetic, nonmetallic oxides, nano-tubes and carbon nano-particles. SNP’s has its potential as an anti-microbial agent. SNP’s shows different ways of inhibitory actions to different microorganisms; it can also be used to control a variety of plant pathogens very effectively and comparatively in more secure method as compared to most of synthetic fungicides. Copper nano-particles are reported to have antimicrobial activity against a number of species of bacteria and fungi. 

Previous studies have indi­cated that copper nanoparticles have antimicrobial activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus species, and similar antifungal properties were also reported by higher concentrations.

For the same purpose we can use different concentrations of copper and silver nanoparticles to enhance the callus induction and regeneration efficiency of wheat. We prepare their nanoparticles by biological methods to avoid any harmful and residual effects

3AgNO3+Na3C6H5O7.2H2O → C6H5O7+NaNO3+CO2+3Ag+2H2O


                   
First of all different concentrations of 2, 4-D, BAP and NAA were used to optimize the best protocol for callus induction and regeneration Optimum concentrations of 2, 4-D (3.5 mg/l) + BAP (0.5 mg/l) shows maximum callus induction of 88% and 65% for embryogenic callus induction. For being optimized levels of 2, 4-D and BAP, 40 ppm Ag NPS shows 100% callus induction and 10 ppm Cu NPS shows 64% embryogenic callus induction. Maximum callus regeneration was observed for 40 ppm concentration of silver nano-particles which was 88% and 30 ppm concentration of copper nano-particles which was 77%.

Visual observations show that callus induced with silver nano-particles of concentrations 30 ppm and 40 ppm were the best embryogenic calluses, having very impressive lush white or off white color with green spots, which shows their embryogenic behavior because shiny white, hard, compact, granular and green spotted calluses is mark of identification for embryogenic callus and results show that they exhibit best regeneration.






However different concentrations of copper nanoparticles showed reduced results for both callus induction and regeneration percentage as compared to silver nanoparticles but much  better than controlled treatments. Over all silver nanoparticles show good results for callus induction and regeneration. Most important role of Silver nanoparticles was observed as its anti-microbial activities which are required to be further exploration.





About Author:
Mr. Ali Raza
M.Sc. (Hons.) Agri-Biotechnology
Centre of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology (CABB). University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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